Despite academic, policy and charity commissioned research giving considerable attention to the health of imprisoned women, significantly less research has considered the reproductive health and rights of this group. This shortfall is noteworthy since women who are imprisoned are often in very vulnerable positions, and so their ongoing healthcare in relation to gynaecology, obstetrics and sexual health and wellbeing, as well as access to such rights, should be a priority. These issues are exacerbated for the high number of women who are repeatedly imprisoned for short sentences. Presenting findings of a rapid evidence assessment, this article highlights the lack of attention to this aspect of imprisoned women’s health and rights, using the limited information available. The article argues that suitable reproductive healthcare needs to be seen as an essential aspect of women’s rights. Furthermore, the current nature of imprisonment in England and Wales results in multiple and frequent rights violations.