Lack of consent is an essential characteristic of sexual violence. The present study was conducted to analyze the relation between sexual consent and the risk of perpetrating sexual aggression by men and victimization suffered by women in more depth. The sample consisted of 1681 heterosexual Spanish men and women aged 18–66 years. The participants completed an online survey containing the Spanish versions of the Sexual Consent Scale Revised and the Sexual Experiences Survey. The results showed that 70.2% of the women had been sexual victims, and 20.8% of men reported having perpetrated sexual violence. On the one hand, sexual aggressors, unlike non aggressors, underestimated the relevance of obtaining sexual consent, and more aggressors reported lack of perceived behavioral control for requesting sexual consent and endorsed less positive attitudes to obtain sexual consent than non aggressors. On the other hand, sexual victims, compared to non victims, considered requesting explicit sexual consent relevant, but held certain ideas, attitudes, and behaviors that did not go along with obtaining sexual consent, which leaves women in a position of vulnerability.