Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem and is the most common form of violence against women. Women with HIV in serodifferent relationships may be at an increased risk of IPV compared to women without HIV, hindering their ability to adhere to antiretroviral therapy, clinic appointments, and condom use during sex. This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of IPV in the past year among women with HIV in serodifferent relationships in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods This cross-sectional study included women with HIV in serodifferent relationships who were at least 18 years old and provided written informed consent. Their experience of physical, sexual, or emotional violence in the past year by the current partner was assessed using 13 questions adapted from the World Health Organization survey on violence against women. Standardized instruments were used to assess sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Associations between intimate partner violence and other variables were evaluated using log binomial regression models. Results Of the 159 women enrolled, 47 (29.6%, 95% CI 22.9–37.2%) reported IPV in the past year. Of these, 32 (68.1%) reported emotional, 27 (57.4%) physical, and 27 (57.4%) sexual violence. In the multivariate model, pregnancy (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 2.14, 95% CI 1.09–4.20), alcohol use (minimal drinking aPR 1.91, 95% CI 1.10–3.33; moderate/severe drinking aPR 1.17, 95% CI 0.53–2.59), male partner controlling behavior (aPR 2.09, 95% CI 1.24–3.51), and past physical violence (aPR 1.93, 95% CI 1.22–3.05) remained significantly associated with a higher prevalence of IPV in the past year. Conclusion This study identified a high prevalence of IPV in the past year among women with HIV in serodifferent relationships. Pregnant women and women who had experienced prior violence had a higher prevalence of IPV. These data highlight the need to screen for IPV during clinic visits, and to offer evidence based interventions to support women in serodifferent relationships who have experienced IPV.