Involvement with the juvenile justice system can impact young people's physical and mental health and well-being throughout their lives, as well as the health and well-being of their families and communities. Youth of color are more likely to become involved with the juvenile justice system, and suffer worse outcomes in sentencing, during incarceration, and after release. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine's Roundtable on the Promotion of Health Equity convened a workshop to discuss the impact that juvenile justice system involvement has on the health and well-being of adolescents, families, and communities of color; examine policies that are successful in improving outcomes; and explore what needs to be done to improve all aspects of encounters with the juvenile justice system. The workshop suggested pursuing alternatives to traditional juvenile justice systems that would allow adolescents to stay in their communities rather than in detention, responding to behavioral problems in youth with interventions that promote health and positive development rather than punishment, and tailoring interventions and programming to participants' cultural background and gender identity. This report summarizes the proceedings of the workshop.