Objectives. This project assessed vaccine hesitancy among staff and incarcerated adults in one rural medium-security prison in the Midwestern United States and identified differences in hesitancy across sociodemographic and work-related variables. Methods. 610 prison staff and people incarcerated completed a cross-sectional survey in May 2021. The vaccine hesitancy scale (VHS) identified perceived risk and confidence in vaccination. A single item assessed whether people typically follow public health protocols in the prison. A combination of analyses was utilized, including ANOVA, Chi-Square, and Pearson’s correlation. Results. Vaccine hesitancy was moderate to high for both populations. Incarcerated people had more confidence in vaccination than staff; differences did not reach statistical significance. Incarcerated people had statistically significantly higher perceptions of risk compared to staff. Both populations reported doing their best to follow public health protocols. For both populations, vaccine hesitancy varied by education and veteran status. Among staff, hesitancy varied by gender and political beliefs. For people incarcerated, it varied by pre-incarceration income and visit frequency. Conclusions. Results support the need for public health policy and procedural interventions to reduce hesitancy towards vaccination in correctional settings.